Important Folders

  • .gitignore is a file including names of stuff that you don”t want to be staged or tracked. You usually keep your local files like database, media, and etc here. You can find good resources online about ignoring specific files in your project files. The .gitignore itself is also get ignored
  • .git is a hidden directory in repo directory including git files. It is created after “git init”.


git config --global --list                   # lists the git configuration for all repos
git config --global --edit                   # opens an editor to edit the git config file
git config --global alias.<handle> <command> # add git aliases to speed up workflow , eg. if  handle is st and command is status then running git st would execute


git init            # initiates git in the current directory
git remote add origin        # add remote reposiory
git clone <address> # creates a git repo from given address (get the address from your git-server)
git clone <address> -b <branch_name> <path/to/directory>  # clones a git repo from the address into the given directory and checkout's the given branch
git clone <address> -b <branch_name> --single-branch  # Clones a single branch

Staging and Unstaging

git status         # shows the status of modified and staged files

git add file.txt   # adds(stages) file.txt to the git
git add *          # adds(stages) all new modifications, deletions, creations to the git
git reset file.txt # Removes file.txt from the stage
git reset --hard   # Throws away all your uncommitted changes, hard reset files to HEAD
git rm file.txt    # removes file.txt both from git and file system
git rm --cached file.txt # only removes file.txt both from git index
git status         # shows the modifications and stuff that are not staged yet

Branch Handling

git branch                         # shows all the branches (current branch is shown with a star)
git branch my-branch               # creates my-branch
git branch -d my-branch            # deletes my-branch
git checkout my-branch         	   # switches to my-branch
git merge my-branch                # merges my-branch to current branch
git push origin --delete my-branch # delete remote branch
git branch -m <new-branch-name>    # rename the branch
git checkout --orphan <branch_name> # checkout a branch with no commit history
git branch -vv                     # list all branches and their upstreams, as well as last commit on branch
git branch -a                      # List all local and remote branches


git stash                            # stashes the staged and unstaged changes (git status will be clean after it)
git stash -u                         # stash everything including new untracked files (but not .gitignore)
git stash save "msg"                 # stash with a msg
git stash list                       # list all stashes
git stash pop                        # delete the recent stash and applies it
git stash pop stash@{2}              # delete the {2} stash and applies it
git stash show                       # shows the description of stash
git stash apply                      # keep the stash and applies it to the git
git stash branch my-branch stash@{1} # creates a branch from your stash
git stash drop stash@{1}             # deletes the {1} stash
git stash clear                      # clears all the stash

Commiting and Pushing

git commit -m "msg"          # commit changes with a msg
git commit --amend           # combine staged changes with the previous commit, or edit the previous commit message without changing its snapshot
git commit --amend --no-edit # amends a commit without changing its commit message
git commit --amend --author='Author Name <>'    # Amend the author of a commit
git push my-remote my-branch # pushes the commits to the my-remote in my-branch (does not push the tags)
git revert <commit-id>       # Undo a commit by creating a new commit

git cherry-pick <commit_id>                     # merge the specified commit
git cherry-pick <commit_id_A>^..<commit_id_B>   # pick the entire range of commits where A is older than B ( the ^ is for including A as well )

Pull and Rebase

git pull my-remote my-branch      # pulls and tries to merge my-branch from my-remote to the current branch

git rebase -i <commit_id>         # Rebase commits from a commit ID
git rebase --abort                # Abort a running rebase
git rebase --continue             # Continue rebasing after fixing all conflicts


git remote                         # shows the remotes
git remote -v                      # shows the remote for pull and push
git remote add my-remote <address> # creates a remote (get the address from your git-server)
git remote rm my-remote            # Remove a remote


git log                      # shows the log of commits
git log --oneline            # shows the log of commits, each commit in a single line
git log -p <file_name>       # change over time for a specific file
git log <Branch1> ^<Branch2> # lists commit(s) in branch1 that are not in branch2
git log -n <x>               # lists the last x commits
git log -n <x> --oneline     # lists the last x commits, each commit in single line
git grep --heading --line-number '<string/regex>' # Find lines matching the pattern in tracked files
git log --grep='<string/regex>'                   # Search Commit log


git show                     # shows one or more objects (blobs, trees, tags and commits).
git diff                     # show changes between commits, commit and working tree
git diff --color             # show colored diff
git diff --staged            # Shows changes staged for commit


git tag                           # shows all the tags
git tag -a v1.0 -m "msg"          # creates an annotated tag
git show v1.0                     # shows the description of version-1.0 tag
git tag --delete v1.0             # deletes the tag in local directory
git push --delete my-remote v1.0  # deletes the tag in my-remote (be carefore to not delete a branch)
git push my-remote my-branch v1.0 # push v1.0 tag to my-remote in my-branch
git fetch --tags                  # pulls the tags from remote


git clean -f                      # clean untracked files permanently
git clean -f -d/git clean -fd     # To remove directories permanently
git clean -f -X/git clean -fX     # To remove ignored files permanently
git clean -f -x/git clean -fx     # To remove ignored and non-ignored files permanently


See Also

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